For many years now, The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau have reported that women are paid less than their male colleagues for the same work. In addition to this, women are underrepresented in high-profile job roles -, especially in the STEM field.

Recent studies have combined a number of factors such as housing costs, women’s percentage in the workforce, gender-based salary gap, working and living conditions, and career growth prospects to rank the best cities for women in STEM to live. Here are the top fifteen cities recommended for women in 2018:

  1. Washington, D.C.

The nation’s capital remains in first place for the fourth consecutive year as the best city for women in technological fields to live. The percentage of women represented in the job market of the city is an impressive 38.5%. Over the past few years, the percentage of tech jobs in the city has grown by about 33%.

  1. Kansas City, Missouri

Kansas City comes in second place for the second year in a row.  While there may not be as many technology-related jobs as there are in Washington, D.C., Kansas City has seen a 16% increase in technology jobs over the past few years. Also, women working here are paid roughly the same salary as their male counterparts.

  1. Baltimore, Maryland

Next is the city of Baltimore, only an hour outside of Washington, D.C. Baltimore has a track record of both job growth and security. Over the past few years, the city has witnessed the technology jobs grow by 36%. This is the second highest increase in tech-jobs nationwide, according to the study.

  1. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

In fourth place is Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love. There has been huge growth in the tech field here over the past year – a 7% increase. However, women only earn about 94% of what their male counterparts do.

  1. Albuquerque, New Mexico

Albuquerque earns fifth place when it comes to women’s earnings in the tech sector. On average, women earn about ninety-six cents to their male colleague’s dollar. The average yearly salary that a woman makes from a tech job (after deducting average housing costs) is $53,181. However, the one downside with regard to this city is the very slow growth rate in tech jobs.

  1. St. Paul, Minnesota

The city of St. Paul reports the largest growth in technology jobs over the past few years with a 41% increase. In this city, women are fairly represented in tech jobs of all kinds. Among the total tech jobs available in the city, women have occupied 26.4%, while an average woman makes about 89% of what men earn here.

  1. Arlington, Virginia

With regard to the pay for women in the STEM field, Arlington is among the best places in the country. The average salary made by women in the technology sector (after deducting average housing costs) is $58,253. Women have filled about 33% of the tech jobs available here.

  1. New Orleans, Louisiana

The city of New Orleans has dropped by three places since last year but is still an attractive  Last year, the city could rank high due to the very low pay gap noticed here. In fact, women working in the technology sector are paid as much as men are paid. Nevertheless, the average salary a woman takes home here in this city after deducting the housing costs is only $42,000.

  1. New York, New York

Though the cost of living is high in New York, women in the technology sector are taking home a decent salary. After deducting the housing costs, the average earning a woman makes in the city is $55,377. However, women here are paid 12% lesser than their male counterparts.

  1. Indianapolis, Indiana

The technology field in Indianapolis is relatively equitable, with men and women earning roughly the same salaries. On average, women are earning 99% of what men earn for the same job. The average salary a woman takes home in the city after deducting housing costs is $51,000 per year.

  1. Houston, Texas

Houston comes in eleventh place this year, mainly because of the slow growth rate in the STEM fields, reporting only a 9% increase over the past few years. However, women earn about 94% of what men earn. The average salary a woman makes in the city of Houston, Texas after deducting housing costs is $56,151.

  1. Louisville, Kentucky

Up nine places from last year, Louisville has grabbed the 12th spot. Women make up about 28.4% of the technology workforce. The growth of technology jobs has been approximately 21% over the past few years.

  1. Chandler, Arizona

Located about twenty miles south of Phoenix, Chandler is called the “innovation and technology hub of the Southwest.” Women occupy 29% of the technology jobs in the Chandler. The growth of tech jobs in the city has been 6% over the past few years.

  1. Charlotte, North Carolina

Charlotte is ranked 14th among the best cities for women in technology to work. Women makeup 26% of the technology workforce here and take home an average salary of $52,768 (after deducting housing costs).

  1. Fremont, California

Last but certainly not least is the city of Fremont. This city offers a plenty of technology job opportunities for women. The technology jobs in this city have grown by 26% over the past few years, and women occupy 25.2% of technology jobs in the city. The average take-home salary of women in the technology sector in this city is $65,000.